Medical examination and physical examination helps to lessen the symptoms of cartilage defect but does not provide a proper treatment. For this reason although there exists lots of different methods, these applications have limited effects on the body.
Let us observe some kind of methods applied for this purpose:
Microfracture technic: It is suitable for only little defects and it is done by making little holes in joint surface defect. By applying mezenchymal cells coming from the bone narrow to this little holes like a channel and it provides the formation of fibrocartilage character tissue. It is obvious that the newly forming tissue is mechanically softer and weaker than the hyaline cartilage which forms the joint cartilage and becomes degenerated.
Mosaicplasti: The ostoechondral fragments taken from the non loaded area of the joint is put onto the existing defect area which is in mosaic shape and it is aimed that there exists a regeneration. Especially hyaline cartilage is formed. But it is an important disadvantage to repeat the method again in the areas where the mosaic parts are taken if the attempt is unsuccessful. So this method should not be considered firstly especially is should be applied if first the microfracture technic is unsuccessul.
Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation: Arthroscopically taken cartilage biopsy from the non loaded part of the joint is first propagated in the laboratory conditions by the help of autologous serum and other proper biological serum. In the second process, it requires to put the cells to the defect area by covering the area with periost flebi.
But there are some disadvantages:
1. Cells are transplanted in an aqueous environment.
2. In order to fix the cells, periost flebi is required. This can lengthen the operation cut and medical period. In addition it has some disadvantages concerning staying in the hospital, joint swelling, joint motion limitation and so healing period.